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Evidence synthesis and HEOR 

Evidence synthesis allows to bring together all relevant information on a research question

Value requires comparison but unfortunately, drug development decisions are usually made with in-depth quantitative analysis of internal data from the drug candidate and a comprehensive, but less quantitative, review of published data from other candidates. On top of it, single arm trials and comparison with placebo are very common. Meta-analyses can help here!

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Evidence synthesis methodologies

PHARMAECONOMICA conducts state-of-the-art literature reviews and meta-analyses using the most rigorous methodologies, to ensure the reliability and reproducibility of the answers to your research questions.

High-quality literature reviews allow for an understanding of:

  • Disease patterns including etiology, definitions, and diagnosis

  • Epidemiologic, humanistic, and economic burden of the disease

  • Clinical Guidelines and patterns in clinical practice

  • Data and performance of the comparator treatments

  • Previous modeling exercises in the disease area

  • Inputs of the economic models on identification, measurement, and valuation of resource usage and utility estimates

We perform high-quality meta-analyses:

  • Pairwise meta-analysis (PMA): If the data from multiple trials are sufficiently homogenous, a pairwise meta-analysis can be performed to calculate pooled effect estimates. It involves groups of trials that compare the same two interventions directly (head-to-head)

  • Network meta-analysis (NMA): NMA combines trials with different treatments and comparators into a single framework and it permits to simultaneously accommodate direct and indirect comparisons. It also allows estimation of the ranking and hierarchy of interventions.

  • Model-based meta-analysis (MBMA): 

  • MBMA  incorporates parametric pharmacology models (e.g., with dose and

  • duration) and is able to integrate relevant pre-clinical, bio-marker, clinical safety and efficacy data of competing treatment options in a certain disease area.

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Benefits of our evidence synthesis services
  • Product’s clinical differentiation

  • Prediction on how a new drug’s safety and efficacy profile might compare to the current SOC and other competitor drugs

  • Treatment comparisons even if no head-to-head trial available

  • Multi-treatment comparisons

  • Inform cost-effectiveness models (populate cost-effectiveness models)

  • Provide a ranking of the compared interventions for a particular outcome

  • Understanding of a drug’s dose-response relationship

  • Increase the probability of clinical trial success

  • MBMA has emerged as a methodology that quantifies clinical trial efficacy, tolerability, and safety information to enable strategic drug development decisions. It provides a quantitative framework for differentiation by allowing one to understand how a new compound will perform relative to existing relevant comparators and /or drugs in development

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Modeling services for HTA submissions

To estimate both costs and consequences of alternative courses of action, models synthesize information on a range of variables such as natural history, clinical efficacy, health-related quality of life, resource use, and costs and results of these analytical models are used to decide which interventions represent good value for money from the perspective of a particular decision maker.


We can help if  your Organization requires  a model to:

  • Understand disease patterns and unmet needs

  • Support strategic planning

  • Develop an economic evaluation

  • Demonstrate value to inform payer decisions



Our experts use state-of-the-art methods to develop high-quality decision analytic models:

  • Decision trees

  • Markov and other stochastic process models

  • Simulations (individual patient, discrete event, etc.)

  • Infectious disease models

  • Statistical analyses (survival analysis, multivariate regression, utility data analysis, etc.)

  • Probabilistic, bivariate, univariate, and structural sensitivity analysis

  • The expected value of perfect information

  • Multi-criteria decision analysis

  • Time-driven activity-based costing

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Benefits of economic modeling
  • Our high-quality cost-effectiveness models can be used for submission purposes to demonstrate value for money and gain national reimbursement recommendations in the UK, North America, Australia, Canada, Sweden, The Netherlands …..

  • A cost-effectiveness model also generates and demonstrates the economic value messages that will form a key component of the product value story to ensure the product’s market access and adoption.

  • We can develop a full range of economic models to estimate the cost of disease, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, value-based pricing, budget impact, and expected value of perfect information

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